Tuberculosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacillus Kochii) and mainly affects the lungs but can affect other organs of the human body. Commonly young people of working age suffer from tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is passed from the patient with active form to a healthy person when talking, coughing, sneezing, and sputum production. The symptoms: cough for 2 weeks, loss of appetite, weight loss, night sweats, temperature up to 37,00 - 37,50C, general weakness, fatigue, chest pain, hemoptysis. When you see one of these signs, visit a doctor.
In order not to get sick you have to:
- to lead a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet with plenty of eating meat and dairy products, fish, fruits and vegetables, regular physical activity and exercises, proper rest, giving up smoking, alcohol, drugs.
- to visit a doctor promptly if signs of the disease appear.
- to pass an annual chest X-rays of the lungs.
- to keep a personal hygiene - washing the hands, dishes with detergent and running water, use of individual dishes, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
- to be outdoors and go on nature frequently.
- to ventilate the room regularly and make a wet cleaning.
- not to spit phlegm - it is a bad habit that encourages the spread of disease through the inhalation of dust, possibly infected with tubercle bacillus.
- the highest risk of infection are subject to family members of the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis.
- infection most often occurs in the room, so be sure your house is regularly ventilated. Cover your mouth when coughing.
In most cases people with weakened immune systems (ulcer, diabetes), patients with alcoholism and drug addiction, as well as subjected to stress, fatigue got sick with tuberculosis. Therefore, in order to strengthen the immune system people must eat healthy food and do exercise.
Angina is the most common among cardiovascular diseases in our society. Because of circulatory disorders of the coronary arteries heart suffers from lack of oxygen. Atherosclerosis also relates to the most common diseases. In the inner wall of human arteries subjected to the disease accumulates cholesterol, which is then converted into atherosclerotic plaque. The plaque, growing, gradually close the lumen of the vessel. As a result, there is vasoconstriction. This is the main cause of various kinds of ischemic diseases. Myocardial infarction is also one of the most common heart disease. Myocardial infarction in the site of vessel narrowing thrombus is formed, resulting a myocardial necrosis. In such cases, sometimes cardiac rupture may occur. All of the above mentioned diseases, called the cardiovascular system diseases in a word. The main factors of cardiovascular disease are lack of exercise, sedentary work, stress, smoking, alcohol consumption and elevated levels of cholesterol and blood pressure. Therefore it is necessary to adhere to a healthy lifestyle: do physical exercises, quit smoking and alcohol and to keep the daily diet of healthy eating.
During the last 4 years a stenting of coronary arteries is used in a regional cardiology center most effectively. The tube, which is inserted into the narrowed artery of the heart called a stent. But before you put a stent, coronary angiography is performed. Coronary angiography is a method of radiopaque method of research, which is the most accurate and reliable way to diagnose coronary heart disease, allowing to accurately determine the nature, location and degree of narrowing of the coronary artery.
The thin catheter is carried to the heart through radial or femoral artery. The contrast agent is inserted through catheter filling heart vessels and allows to assess their condition. Then the vessel constriction is extended with special balloon and the stent is inserted. The lumen of the vessel is increased to normal and the patient is cured of the disease. To date, this method allows to prevent myocardial infarction. Even if you had a heart attack, stent can be placed and after the additional treatment, the patient recovers quickly. Ten years ago, many people predicted the death of the person who got myocardial infarction two times. There were the reasons for that. At the present time things have changed, it can be stated with confidence that modern medicine has a full opportunity to cure a heart attack.
For early detection of cardiovascular diseases it is necessary to pass screening for early detection of risk factors.
What you should know about cancer? Many people deliberately ignore all publications relating to cancer. Some avoid the discussion of this topic for fear of "jinx" themselves. Carcinoma, tumor, neoplasia, cancer, blastoma... It can has different names, but sounds scary and frightening for most people. But you should know what and why you need to fear, how to prevent or identify the disease promptly. Some tumors can be benign, and they practically are not life threatening. Their removal generally results in a full recovery at any stage of development. Others may be malignant and lead to an adverse outcome. Many malignant tumors, if they identified before they begin to proliferate (grow), can be eliminated, or at least limit their growth over a long time. Curiously, but the ones who are afraid of cancer or suspected it at theirselves, do not want to receive any information that could confirm or refute their suspicions. They probably believe that what they do not know, can not bring them harm. This attitude is fraught with disaster.
Causes of the disease: in the XX century noted the rapid growth of the incidence of cancer. The reasons for this are several. The main reason - the rapid development of civilization. The emergence of a huge number of new technologies and mechanisms, fields and radiation, chemicals and all that for the most part, have a negative impact on the human body. People are concerned about the state of the environment, food safety. Is high fat content connect with increasing the frequency of bowel cancer? Or, if the addition of artificial sugar substitutes increases the risk of malignant tumors in humans? Is cigarette smoke plays an important role in the development of lung cancer? We are concerned about chemical additives in cosmetics, synthetic fibers in our clothing fabrics, synthetic toys for children. Everything we breathe, eat and drink and use in everyday life contains significant amounts of carcinogens, which our ancestors did not know about.
Carcinogenesis - the process of degeneration of a normal cell into a malignant one has its own laws and the stage, and chemical / radiation capable if it gets into the human body or animals lead to the formation of malignant neoplasms (tumors) which are called carcinogens. The most famous physical carcinogen - ionizing radiation. Among chemical carcinogens the following are released: nitrate / nitrite, benzopyrene, peroxides, aflatoxins, dioxins.
The greatest importance in the prevention of cancer is: stop smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, obesity prevention, reduction in fat use, regular and adequate consumption of fiber.
Today it is possible to treat cancer, and the life expectancy of patients with cancer has increased significantly. That is why, far more importance than in other diseases is the possibility to obtain the latest information and expert advice on the timely diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Before taking appropriate measures, the diagnosis should be confirmed by oncologist.
Addiction - (syn. drug addiction, narcomania) - the common name of diseases, appeared with an attraction to continuous reception in increasing quantities of narcotic drugs and drug-resistant due to psychological and physical dependence on them with the development of withdrawal symptoms when you stop receiving them; it leads to profound changes in personality and other mental disorders, as well as dysfunction of internal organs.
Today we can oppose this evil an effective countering which is not only in the developed countries, but in South Kazakhstan in the form of legal, medical, social and psychological support for the prevention and rehabilitation of addicted patients, combined simultaneously with a powerful propaganda campaign against drugs.
At present, on the basis of the Regional Drug Dispensary operates 9 branches, including 4 units for the treatment of patients with alcoholism, 1 - women's section for the treatment of patients with drug and alcohol abuse, department of psychotherapy and rehabilitation unit for drug addicts, dispensary department, which includes day hospital, anonymous treatment room, drug prevention room, 18 dispensary sites for monitoring patients who are registered, teenage room, laboratory and diagnostic equipment.
In the regional narcological dispensary (RND) created all the conditions for inpatient and outpatient treatment of patients with substance dependence, including women and children. Rehabilitation department operates for 30 beds for drug addicts and alcoholics, where working highly qualified professionals: doctors, drug experts, psychologists, psychotherapists, social workers, able to provide the necessary qualified medical help to the addicted patients. Anonymous treatment is also possible, which is used by many patients because of different personal circumstances. Recovery is a complex, long-term, and sometimes painful process, the first step and the basic prerequisite of which is a complete rejection of the use of any psychoactive substances.
In the region narcoposts in 83 schools are functioning, in all polyclinics of the city health-psychological rooms are operating, where consultative and preventive work is undergoing, in the regions and cities of the region there are 18 drug treatment rooms are functioning.
Diabetes - develops as a result of hyperglycemia - a persistent increase of glucose in blood. The disease affects all ages (children, middle age and old age). Diabetes dangerous at a young age especially, in this age insulin is used for the treatment. Diabetes mellitus often exposed people over 40 years of age who consume a lot of food and overweighted. Diabetes is characterized by disruption of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, so as glucose enters the blood in an excessive amount. Diabetes begins due to dysfunction of the pancreas, an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. the body breaks down the glucose processing without insulin causing hyperglycemia.
The disease is came out in the following initial symptoms: polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue, numbness in the lower extremities, decrease in sensitivity, constant hunger, weight loss.
Currently, the treatment of diabetes starts with the appearance of the disease. It is also important to achieve and maintain normal blood sugar level. Only under these rules diabetics can maintain the ability to work, to prevent severe complications. According to WHO all countries of the world have decided to comply with these rules.
HIV - human immunodeficiency virus. HIV weakens the immune system, which protects the body from various infections. HIV infects certain immune system cells (CD4). By reducing the number of CD4 cells the stage of the disease is find out. People who live with HIV also called HIV-infected or HIV-positive.
AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The final (IV) clinical stage of HIV infection.
Ways of transmission of HIV: 1) a sexual way - through sexual contact without a quality condom, 2) from the infected mother to her child - during pregnancy, during childbirth, during breastfeeding, 3) parenteral route - through the blood (using infected tools of medical purpose (syringes, needles), transfusion of blood or blood products.
Preventive measures: the use of condoms during sexual contacts, HIV testing during pregnancy and if necessary to receive antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from HIV-infected mother to child, the use of disposable medical instruments.
HIV is not transmitted: by shaking hands, hugging, kissing, through food, through insect bites, sputum and tears, while using common dishwares and cutlery, bed linen, towels and clothing, by coughing and sneezing, by sharing toilets and showers, fitness together, stay in the same room with an HIV-positive person.
HIV testing is free, confidential and anonymous in the regional center for the prevention and control of AIDS. Psycho-social counseling is conducted. A blood test for HIV (HIV testing) can be taken in any medical organization in the attached territory.
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection, which is characterized by specific gastroenteritis or enteritis, general intoxication, violation of water-salt balance, with rapid dehydration, a dysfunction of the cardiovascular system function. Cholera unlike other OCI, characterized by a particular severity, high mortality, and the ability for a short period of time hitting a large contingent of people over a wide area. Because of these cholera related to the particularly dangerous infections.
The source of infection with cholera is the only sick person or vibriocarrier. The mechanism of transmission is fecal-oral, it transmitted by contact-household and by water ways. Atrium is only a gastrointestinal tract pathogen which falls through the mouth with contaminated water, food or from infected hands. Once in the stomach portion of vibrio of cholera under the influence of hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice are killed and part enters the small intestine where proliferate and secrete an exotoxin. Under the action of exotoxin, mucosa of the small intestine begins to secrete a large amount of isotonic fluid. The colon does not have time to suck back the liquid, so that there is profuse diarrhea.
Under the action of cholera toxin vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, iron deficiency and dehydration appear. CBV is decreased due to repeated vomiting and diarrhea. Due to blood clots metabolism is disturbed at the cellular level. Increase of acids and decrease of alk in the body lead to metabolic acidosis. Acidosis and hypoxia causes reflex hyperventilation, the deepening of these processes lead to hypocapnia. Homeostasis disruption cycle can be treated with oral rehydration therapy.
Preventive measures: personal hygiene, do not drink unboiled water, to wash vegetables and fruits before use.
Information about the diseases common to humans and animals, as well as the diseases transmitted from animals to humans.
Information on protection methods from the diseases transferred from animals and diseases common for animals and humans:
Brucellosis - an infectious disease affecting the musculoskeletal, nervous, and reproductive system. Brucellosis is widespread throughout the world in animals and humans. Cows, sheeps, goats and pigs are often got sick. The disease is transmitted to man in the use of dairy products and animal care. The causative agent of brucellosis is small causative agent. It released into the environment through milk, saliva and urine of the animal. Сhronic brucellosis is common in farm production workers, they initially did not pay much attention to the first signs of the disease, they treated superficially and the disease becomes chronic primary. Man is constantly drinking infected animal milk, gradually replenishes the number of pathogens in the body. A second chronic brucellosis may develop after acute brucellosis.
Sick with brucellosis from the first days of treatment and for 2 years in addition to a thorough treatment should streamlined his lifestyle. It is a balanced diet, rest, good sleep, should not engage in difficult and hazardous work.
Preventive measures: use of boiled or pasteurized milk. It is preferable not to eat cottage cheese and cheese made from unboiled milk in places of brucellosis extension. If you are caring for sick animals keep precautions, especially if you have bruises and cracks in the skin. Monitor animal health and consult with veterinarians.
Malignant carbuncle- acute bacterial zoonotic infection causing serous-hemorrhagic inflammation of the skin, lymph nodes and internal organs, and symptoms of intoxication.
The source and reservoir of infection are sick animals mostly cattle and sheeps. And also horses, donkeys, dogs and cats are sensitive to the pathogen. Sick animals spread agents in the surrounding environment through feces.
Ways of introducing pathogens are through microtraumas of the skin and scalp, through transmucosal respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Pathogen getting through the skin releases toxins that cause swelling and tissue necrosis, which causes malignant ulcerative carbuncle. Increasing of the amount of pathogen lead to endotoxemia, which in its turn contributes emergence of an infectious-toxic shock. Treatment is etiotropic. Preventive measures: Observance of safety precautions when dealing with animals and animal products. If cattle suddenly gets ill and dies urgently inform the veterinarian.
The graft cattle can be let for slaughter only after 14 days. Do not to buy animals and meat products from the hands without proper documentation. Because people often hides sick cattle and tries to sell the meat of sick animals without veterinary supervision. Thus, following the simple safety precautions extension of dangerous infections can be prevented.
Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CHF) - an acute infectious disease transmitted by ticks. It is characterized by severe symptoms of intoxication, hemorrhagic syndrome, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia.
- CHF is a natural focal zoonotic infection transmitted by vector-borne;
- Source of infection is many kinds of small and large arthropods;
- Disease vectors are ticks of the Hyaloma genus and other types of mites.
Transmission routes: transmissive (via a tick bite), nonpercutaneous channel (mite contact with sick human or animal blood), aerogenic transmission (through the mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract). The typical image of the patient is flushing of the face and neck, catarrhal conjunctivitis, petechial rash on the skin of the upper and lower extremities, face, mucous membranes, bruises, stomach, uterine, nasal, intestinal bleeding, or bleeding from the injection site, acrocyanosis, tachycardia, hypotension. Preventive measures: disinsection measures of CHF outbreak against ticks, as well as to strengthen the control of safety rules in the organization of sheeps shearing and selling. Preventive measures in the hearth of CHF must to be conducted at the appropriate level, to carry out sanitary and educational work in a timely manner. Do not remove the tick with bare hands from animals. Strictly observe precautionary measures when working with pliers, carefully check the clothes.
Hydrophobiya - a viral, zoonotic natural focal disease, the pathogen is transmitted by nonpercutaneous channel and is characterized by the central nervous system involvement, in the form of encephalomyelitis and which ends with compulsory death of the patient.
Outbreak of Hydrophobiya is divided into two types: natural and typical hydrophobiya and anthropurgic (city). The virus in natural focus circulates among animals of dog family. The main source of infection are wolves, foxes and jackals. Cats, bats are also a source of infection. From the natural focus the virus is transmitted to pets, mostly dogs and cats. Thus, a anthropurgic focus of infection is formed. The incubation period for infectious process of animals lasts 2-8 weeks, sometimes it can be extended to 8 months. Virus stands out with saliva from the source of infection into the environment.
Hydrophobiya virus is transmitted through the contact mechanism among the animals, and from animal to human. Very rarely viruses can penetrate in human body through slavered hair, skin, and also through the dust. Characteristics of hydrophobiya epidemic process occurs in all regions inhabited by people and animals. Once bitten, scratched or slaving immediately visit a doctor (rabies vaccine).