The National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Flag is one of symbols of any state, personifying its identity and the sovereignty. The national flag represents the panel of the correct geometrical form attached to a staff (flagstaff). From ancient times the flag carried out functions of association of people of the country and its identification with the certain state formation.
The oldest flag concerns approximately to 3000 century B.C., it has been found in territory of Iran. It is a metal design in the size 23×23 centimeter with the image of the eagle, two lions, the goddesses, three women and the bull.
If to consider symbolic of the states having uniform historical, and consequently, the symbolical past it is necessary to note, that the image of totem animals: griffins, golden eagles, leopards or tigers or the true satellite of the Turkic-nomad horse, meets on the majority of them. The given fact is acknowledgement of a cultural and spiritual generality of Turkic people.
There is a certificate that the Sakic-Sarmatian tribes who lived in Kazakhstan in III - VIII centuries B.C., had the banners. Nomads-guns had flags of truce, Turki, the ancestors of modern Turkic people, including Kazakhs had flags of blue, green, yellow and other colors.
The state associations of kimak and kipchak kept the continuity in symbolic. Banner of Chingizkhan represented a triangular white panel on which has been represented hunting gerfalcon - totem sorts of the great commander. The choice of color of a flag was defined by the history. Kazakhstan during almost 600 years was under authority of generation of Chingizkhan. Subsequently banners of the Kazakh khans and sultans were white. For example, till now flag of truce Ablaikhan (XVIII century) is kept in national memory. Color of a banner of the governor of Central Asia Timur, as banners of Turki, were celestial-blue.
After connection of Kazakhstan to Russia the new governments-management systems began to be spread which has rendered essential influence and on development of the state symbolic.
The Kazakh Independent Soviet Republic used the state symbols of RSFSR. Constitutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan which were accepted in 1936 and in 1978, established regulations about a flag, the arms and a hymn of Kazakh SSR. The flag represented a panel from three horizontal strips: top and bottom red color and average - Azure. A sickle and hammer were represented at the top part of it and above them there was a red five-pointed star.
In 1992 the National flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which was developed by Shaken Niyazbekov has been approved.
The National flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan represents a rectangular panel of blue color with the image in the center of the sun with beams, and there is a soaring eagle under it. There is a vertical strip with a national ornament at a staff. The image of the sun, its beams, an eagle and a national ornament – all of them are of gold color. A parity of width of a flag to its length is 1: 2.
In traditions of heraldry each color symbolizes the certain concept. So, gold personifies power, force, riches, a constancy, eminence, belief, validity, virtue, mercy, fidelity. Blue color symbolizes honesty, chastity, fidelity, faultlessness. Besides this color corresponds to the sky and air.
Blue color has deep symbolical value in Turkic culture, too. It is enough to say that concepts blue and the sky are designated in the same word in languages of all members of ethnic group having Turkic language. Possibly, it is explained by the fact that ancient turki were worshippers of the sky, who considered the sky as the father, and their blue banner symbolized fidelity to the father- primogenitor. The belief in Tengri has been widespread to territories of Kazakhstan since the most ancient times - the Sky, bearing in itself idea of monotheism long before occurrence of great world religions such as the Buddhism, Christianity and an Islam. This belief has passed in centuries, and in the beginning of 20th century Kazakhs above tombs sacred erected a dome and painted it in blue color, that simulating model of the world: on four columns, personifying four party of light, the dome-spherical a symbol of the sky leans.
In view of cultural traditions, according to belief of all turki-speaking people blue color is perceived as heavenly, sacred, promised, treasured, and primordially pure. If to address to elements of the image on a panel of a flag, that, proceeding from heraldic canons, it is possible to say, that the sun symbolizes riches and abundance, and an eagle symbolizes authority, insight, magnanimity. Besides in traditions of different people there was a reverence of the sun as symbol of revival (a birth of day after night), a symbol of movement and time.
Representing the sun in the state attributes, Kazakhstan once again confirms the adherence to universal values and the world community that also testifies that the new young state of full vital energy is opened to all countries of the world for cooperation.
Another detail of the National flag which does not demand a special explanation is the image of an eagle. It is one of the first heraldic attributes long since applied in the arms and flags of many people. This image is usually perceived as a symbol of authority, insight and magnanimity. In the state symbols it is important not only an image of each detail, but also their execution, accommodation. In this plan the image of an eagle on our flag essentially differs from the predecessors. Earlier its injurious features and aggressive poses as display of force and power were emphasized. On a flag this image has found essentially new art decision, and it is not less expressive, than in the approved approaches. First, quiet, peace character of figure rushes to eyes. Its force, endurance, insight and fearlessness before any tests are important. Secondly, it is located under the sun, as though on the wings bears Prometey`s fire, fire of Happiness. In the third, it flies to the treasured purpose. It also is aspiration of our people fortunately and to prosperity, to heights of a human civilization.
The special place borrows an image of an eagle in outlook of Kazakhs which associates with such concepts as freedom, rebelliousness, feeling of advantage, courage, high ideals, and breadth of soul and cleanliness of thoughts. There isn’t any bird in the world equal to an eagle for nomads and its descendants.
The important element of the National flag is the vertical strip located at its staff with a national ornament. The Kazakh ornament is one of forms of specific art perception of the world in strict conformity with aesthetic tastes of people. Representing harmony rather complex, sometimes the abstract forms, lines and rhythms, it is expressive means of disclosing of a private world of people. Concrete subjects and the phenomena of world serve as their prototypes.
In opinion of scientists enrichment of ornamental motives and their dynamical development are inherent in a high step of development of culture.
The author of the National flag of Republic Kazakhstan is the honored worker of the arts, one of founders of design art of Kazakhstan Shaken Onlassynovich Niyazbekov.
He was born on the 12th of November, in Taraz. Graduated from the Leningrad Art-Industrial School named after I.Mukhina. He is the main artist of Almaty.
His main works are: Complex designs of a cinema named after Sh.Ualikhanov in Taraz, a monument «In Volokolamsk a direction. General-major I.Panfilov and battalion commander B.Momyshuly», picturesque cloths «Kurmangazy», «Kobik shashkan», «Kisen ashkan», «Shokan Ualikhanov», «Mukhtar Auezov», «Syrym Datov», «Zhambyl», «Happiness of mother», etc. He is the author of the arms of Almaty.
The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The Arms is the important symbol of statehood recognized all over the world. The term "arms" occurs from a German word "heritage" or "inheritance" and is a distinctive sign of the state. The history testifies, that the tribes of saks who lived in territory of modern Kazakhstan, symbolized itself the special distinction, by totem which subsequently has received the name "tamga". For the first time the given term has started to be used in Turkic Kaganat.
In well-known "The Dictionary of Turkic adverbs " by Makhmud Kashghari this term was interpreted as a distinctive sign on the governor.
In known annals of Central Asian scientist Rashid ad Dyne (XIII-XIV centuries) there is data on the Turkic governor Oguzkhan who distributed the grounds from Iran up to Altai to his sons. Thus it handed over to them khan’s tamga as a symbol of sovereign authority.
Patrimonial and breeding tamgas were used by Kazakhs, and also turki-speaking the ethnoses living on huge open spaces of Eurasia.
Tamgas of various geometrical forms were used in the form of the arms, press, instead of signatures. Their images often meet on rocky figures and other ancient monuments of writing and art. Tamgas served as a sign on the property belonging to a tribe, a sort, family, the person. They were used for branding animals. This custom, by the way, is kept at Kazakhs in countryside till now.
As a result of administrative-territorial reforms accepted in 1867-1868 there were city and regional arms in Kazakhstan. All areas and the cities of the country which had a part of Russian empire had the arms of the uniform sample. Samples of the arms of areas and of some cities of Kazakhstan (16 district and district cities) are resulted in full assembly of laws of Russian empire. In Kazakhstan the first approved arms is the arms of Petropavlovsk, officially accepted on the 7th of September in 1842.
Within the Soviet authority there is some unification of the arms. The general arms Kazakh SSR represented the image of a sickle and hammer on a red background in beams and in a frame of ears, with an inscription in the Kazakh and Russian languages «Proletarians of all countries, be united! ». In the top part of the arms a five-pointed star, and in bottom "КССР" and " ҚССР ".
The arms of sovereign Kazakhstan was accepted in 1992. Its authors are known architects Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shot-Aman Valikhanov.
The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan has the form of a circle and represents the image of shanyrak (the top vaulted part of yurt) on a blue background from which in all the parties in the form of solar beams miss yuck (support). The images of mythical winged horses are located on the right and to the left of shanyrak. In the top part there is the volumetric five-pointed star, and in the bottom part you can see an inscription "Қазақстан". The colors of the image of a star, shanyrak, yucks, mythical horses, and also an inscription «Қазақстан» are gold.
The found art decision is harmonious and unique from any point of view. Shanyrak, being the basic part of yurt, under the form reminds a heavenly dome and in consciousness of people is one of their important elements of lifestyle. A word «shanyrak» «the wheel of the Sun» goes back to a word «chakra», designating on a Sanskrit "wheel", and in more philosophic sense. Therefore it is not casual, that shanyrak is also original steppe hours - a parameter of speed of movement of the Sun, as on labels on shanyrak solar time of day was defined.
As the symbol having totem value, shanyrak has been especially esteemed at ancient ancestors. In the State Emblem of republic the image of shanyrak is an image of our general house, the general Native land of people living in Kazakhstan. The happiness in this area depends on well-being of everyone as durability of shanyrak depends on reliability of yuck (supports). The future of the state also depends on unity and its consent Citizens, from their general efforts for the good of the general house.
The images of winged mythical horses – tulpars are the important heraldic detail in the State Emblem and carries out a role of the carrier of the certain idea. The image of the Horse from time immemorial personifies such concepts, as bravery and will power. Wings symbolize dream of multinational people of Kazakhstan of construction of the strong and prospering state. They testify to pure thoughts and aspiration to perfection, achievement of harmony in a society with the nature and a world civilization, to achievement of the high purposes and developments. Therefore symbolical value of wings in the State Emblem should be perceived as expression of natural human aspiration to the high thoughts connected with idea of statehood.
Images and subjects in the form of horns were used in cult ceremonies and as tips of military banners earlier. Symbols of heavenly good fortune, fertility and success in the form of horns were always placed on the top as they in representation of nomads contacted «World Mountain». Thus, the winged horse with horns is typological image which has deep historical roots.
In an image of the State Emblem of republic there is one more detail - a five-pointed star. As the symbol of authority, light leading on a life, aspirations to ennobled and eternity, a star is used by mankind for a long time. The star is not characteristic attribute only Russian state heraldry, for the first time it was entered into revolutionary symbolic of Russia by Russian noblemen and even in the State Emblem of Russia it has appeared not at once. It is impossible to use this figure in turned and asymmetrical kinds. The five-pointed star personifies true light «the Star of morning». The image of a star in an image of the State Emblem of the country expresses treasured dream of all Kazakhstan dwellers to join community modern high-civilized and the developed states, to be opened to all people of all Continents of a planet.
The name of the state in itself is its linguistic, ethno cultural, symbolical sign. It has the political value and, as a rule, is defined by the constitution of the country. The name of our country Kazakhstan as the name of the state connected with the Kazakh ethnos, often meets in historical sources, since XV-XVI centuries the Primary color used in image of the State Emblem, color of gold which serves as a symbol of riches, validity and magnanimity.
At the State Emblem there is also a color of a flag celestial-blue which successfully is in harmony with color of gold.
Authors of the State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan are Zhandarbek Malibekovich Malibekov and Shot-Aman Ydyrysuly Ualikhan. Zhandarbek Malibekovich Malibekov is the deserved architect of Uzbekistan. He was born on the 24th of March in aul Ekpindi of area Zhanakorgan in Kyzylorda. He graduated from Tashkent polytechnic institute, the faculty of architecture. He is the main architect of projects, the head of a town-planning workshop of the Uzbek scientific research institute of the industry.
He took part in designing air terminal in Andizhan, buildings of regional post office in Fergana, regional administration, drama theatre and the central library in Samarkand, of some inhabited micro districts in the cities of Angrena, Fergana and Samarkand.
Shot-Aman Ydyrysuly Ualikhan is the author of the State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the deserved architect of Kazakhstan, the winner of the State premium of the republic, the known public figure. He was born on the 26th of April, in aul Syrymbet of area Ajyrtauski of the North-Kazakhstan. He worked as the employee of the Kazakh institute of designing of city construction, as the assistant of the main architect in Almaty, as the chairman of the Union of architects of Kazakhstan. He is the Chairman of the Republican society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The main works are monuments devoted for Ch.Valikhanov and A. Zhangildin, T.Bokin in Almaty, participation in creative group on designing stadium «Dynamo». He is the head of creative group of authors of the Monument of Independence in Almaty.
The National Hymn of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The golden sun shines in the sky,
The golden seed lays in the steppe,
The legend tells about brave men,-
Look at my homeland!
Our glory has come
From hoary antiquity;
My Kazakh people
Are proud and strong.
Oh, my homeland! Oh, my homeland!
I am a flower grown by you,
I am a song coming from your lips.
My Kazakhstan, that’s where I was born!
Here are my vast expanses
And the way into the future.
Here is my independent,
Solidary, and united nation.
Our happy nation, our people
Welcome the new time
As an eternal friend.
Oh, my homeland! Oh, my homeland!
I am a flower grown by you,
I am a song coming from your lips.
My Kazakhstan, that’s where I was born!